Walter E. Block, Harold E. Wirth, Joseph A. Butt


Most economists oppose minimum wages, rent control and protectionism. The present paper takes this opposition one step further. Well, a few steps further. It attempts to make the case that those responsible for these enactments are criminals and should be punished by law.


Punishment; Minimum wages; Rent control; Protectionism; Criminality.

Texto completo:

PDF (English)


Academia Stack Exchange. 2015. “Can a university retract a degree for actions taken after the degree is awarded?” September 22;

Aravosis, John. 2017. “UDPATE: Trump WH aide Monica Crowley steps down over plagiarism.” January 16;

Alesina, Alberto and Beatrice Weder. 2002. "Do Corrupt Governments Receive Less Foreign Aid?" American Economic Review , September

Alston, Richard M., J. R. Kearl and Michael B. Vaughan. 1992. “Is there a global economic consensus: Is there a consensus among economists in the 1990’s?” AEA Papers and Proceedings. May, pp. 203-209.

Alston, Wilton D. and Walter E. Block. 2007. “Reparations, Once Again.” Human Rights Review, Vol. 9, No. 3, September, pp. 379-392;

America, Richard. 1993. Paying the Social Debt: What White America Owes Black America. New York, N.Y.: Praeger

Aravosis, John. 2017. “UDPATE: Trump WH aide Monica Crowley steps down over plagiarism.” January 16;

Arceneaux, Taniecea. 2005. "Reparations for Slavery: A Cause for Reparations, A Case Against David Horowitz" The Review of Black Political Economy, Vol. 32, No. 3-4, Winter-Spring, pp. 141-148

Baird, Charles. 1980. Rent Control: The Perennial Folly, Washington D.C.: The Cato Institute

Barnett, William II and Walter E. Block. 2012. Essays in Austrian Economics. New York: Ishi Press;

Bastiat, Frederic. 1848. “The Balance of Trade.”

Bauer, Peter T. 1981. Equality, the Third World, and Economic Delusion, Cambridge: Harvard University Press 3 M’s, mmm

Bauer, Peter T. 1982. "Ecclesiastical Economics is Envy Exalted," This World, No. 1, Winter/Spring, pp. 56-69.

Bauer, Peter T. 1984. Reality and Rhetoric: Studies in the Economics of Development, Cambridge Mass., Harvard University Press.

Bauer, Peter T. 1991. The Development Frontier: Essays in Applied Economics. Harvester Wheatsheaf

Bauer, Peter T. and Basil S. Yamey. 1957. The Economics of Under-developed Countries, The University of Chicago Press, Chicago, Il.

Baum, Caroline. 2015. “Caroline Baum Slams Paul Krugman (on minimum wage)” July 28;

Becker, Gary. 1995. “It's simple: Hike the minimum wage, and you put people out of work.”

Business Week. March 6. p. 22;

Becker, Gary. 2002. “Get the FDA out of the way and drug prices will drop.” September 16;

Bittker, Boris I. 1972. Reparations: The Case for Black Reparations. Boston: Beacon Press

Block, Walter E. 2008 [1976]. Defending the Undefendable. Auburn, AL: The Mises Institute; available for free here:

Block, Walter. 1987. “Minimum Wage Law No Help to Unskilled,” Dateline Canada: Understanding Economics Through Press Reports, p. 37.

Block, Walter E. 1993. “Malcolm X,” Fraser Forum, January, pp. 18-19;

Block, Walter. 2000. “Heritage Stumbles on Minimum Wage,” The Free Market, October, Volume 18, Number 10;

Block, Walter E. 2001A. “The Moral Dimensions of Poverty, Entitlements and Theft,” The Journal of Markets and Morality, Vol. 4, No. 1, pp. 83-93

Block, Walter. 2001B. “The Minimum Wage: A Reply to Card and Krueger,” Journal of The Tennessee Economics Association, Spring;

Block, Walter. 2002A. “Delusions of rising wages,” New Orleans City Business, January, 28, p. 28.

Block, Walter E. 2002B. “On Reparations to Blacks for Slavery,” Human Rights Review, Vol. 3, No. 4, July-September, pp. 53-73;

Block, Walter. 2002C. “A critique of the legal and philosophical case for rent control,” Journal of Business Ethics, Vol. 40, pp. 75-90;

Block, Walter E. 2009. The Privatization of Roads and Highways: Human and Economic Factors; Auburn, AL: The Mises Institute

Block, Walter E. 2011. "Toward a Libertarian Theory of Guilt and Punishment for the Crime of Statism," Journal of Libertarian Studies, Vol. 22; pp. 665-675;

Block, Walter E. 2013. Defending the Undefendable II: Freedom in all realms; Terra Libertas Publishing House; isbn: 978-1-908089-37-3; ;

Block, Walter. 2014. “The Minimum Wage Law.” January 17;;

Block, Walter E. 2015. “Abolish the minimum wage law.” September 6;;

Block, Walter and William Barnett II. 2002. “The Living Wage: What’s Wrong,” The Freeman Ideas on Liberty, December, Vol. 52, No. 12, pp. 23-24

Block, Walter E., Joseph Horton and Ethan Shorter. 1998. “Rent Control: An Economic Abomination,” International Journal of Value Based Management, Vol. 11, No. 3, pp. 253-263

Block, Walter, Joseph Horton and Debbie Walker. 1998. “The Necessity of Free Trade,” Journal of Markets and Morality, Vol. 1, No. 2, October, pp. 192-200

Block, Walter E., and Edgar Olsen, eds. 1981. ”Rent Control: Myths and Realities, Vancouver, The Fraser Institute

Block, Walter E. and Michael A. Walker. 1988. "Entropy in the Canadian Economics Profession: Sampling Consensus on the Major Issues," Canadian Public Policy, Vol. XIV. No. 2, June, pp. 137-150;

Block, Walter E. and Guillermo Yeatts. 1999-2000. “The Economics and Ethics of Land Reform: A Critique of the Pontifical Council for Justice and Peace’s ‘Toward a Better Distribution of Land: The Challenge of Agrarian Reform,’” Journal of Natural Resources and Environmental Law, Vol. 15, No. 1, pp. 37-69;

Boudreaux, Donald J. 2010. “On Trade and Currency Manipulation.” January 5;

Boudreaux, Don. 2015A. “Dartmouth Remarks On the Minimum Wage.” November 17;

Boudreaux, Don. 2015B. “Noah Smith is no Adam Smith.” November 24;

Boudreaux, Don. 2015C. “Data on the battle: The Minimum Wage vs Automation.” December 18;

Boudreaux, Don. 2015D. “Setting the record straight: Automation Caused by Minimum Wage Laws and Otherwise.” December 19;

Boudreaux, Don. 2016A. “On Further Handicapping the Least Productive.” June 3;

Boudreaux, Don. 2016B. “A Pro Minimum-Wage Professor Believes in Miracles.” June 14;

Boudreaux, Don. 2016C. “What the World Looks Like to Someone Who Doesn’t Understand Economics.” June 24;

Boudreaux, Don. 2016D. “The Inconsistency of People Who Support Higher Tariffs and Who Also Support Higher Minimum Wages.” August 4;

Boudreaux, Don. 2016E. “Why the Minimum Wage is Disgraceful.” August 11; Boudreaux, Don. 2016E.


Boudreaux, Don. 2016F. “An Open Letter to Barry Ritholtz.” December 9;

Boudreaux, Donald J. 2016F. “Should Gates clean his own toilets?” August 9;

Boudreaux, Donald J. 2016G. “On Being Too Rigid & Dogmatic & Inflexible on Free Trade.” December 19;

Boudreaux, Don. 2017. “Trump’s Ignorance Is Matched Only by His Thuggishness.” January 3;

Boudreaux, Don. Undated.

Brandly, Mark. 2002. “A Primer on Trade.” November, 4;

Brown, Pamela J. 1987. "Free Thought and Free Trade: The Analogy Between Scientific and Entrepreneurial Discovery Process," The Journal of Libertarian Studies, Vol. 8, No. 2, Summer, pp. 289-292;

Burkhauser, Richard V., Couch, Kenneth A., Wittenburg, David. 1996. "Who Gets What From Minimum Wage Hikes: A Replication and Re-estimation of Card and Krueger." Industrial and Labor Relations Review, 49, no. 3, April, pp. 547-552.

Caplan, Bryan. 2007. The Myth of the Rational Voter: Why Democracies Choose Bad Policies. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press

Caplan, Bryan. 2013A. “Phase-In: A Demagogic Theory of the Minimum Wage.” December 5;

Caplan, Bryan. 2013B. “The Myopic Empiricism of the Minimum Wage.” March 12;

Caplan, Bryan. 2015. “Identificationists Beware.” June 10;

Caplan, Bryan. 2012. “IGM, Economic Consensus, and Partisan Bias.” July 27;

Cappelli, Peter and Walter E. Block. 2012. “Debate over the minimum wage law.” Economics, Management, and Financial Markets, 7(4), December, pp. 11-33;

Castle, Eugene W. 1957. The great giveaway; the realities of foreign aid, Chicago, H. Regnery Co.

Clemens, Jeffrey. 2015. “The minimum wage and the great recession: evidence from the current population survey.” Working Paper 21830.

Cooper, Preston. 2016. “Hiking the Minimum Wage Killed Almost as Many Low-End Jobs as Did the Economic Collapse.” January 9;

Cordato, Roy. 2016. “The Minimum Wage: Taking Away the Right to Work.” August 10;

Deere, Donald, Murphy, Kevin M., Welch, Finis. 1995. "Employment and the 1990-91 Minimum-Wage Hike." American Economic Review. 85, no. 2, May, pp. 232-237.

De Jasay, Anthony. 1989. Social Contract, Free Ride: A Study of the Public Goods Problem. Oxford University Press;

Dhillon, Bob. 2007. “The perversity of rent controls,” National Post, June 28, p. FP15

Dorobat, Carmen Elena. 2017. “Good Economics Is ‘Bizarre’ for Minimum Wage Supporters.” January 13;

Easterly, William. 2006. White Man's Burden: Why the West's Efforts to Aid the Rest Have Done So Much Ill and So Little Good; Penguin

Epstein, Richard A. 2016. “The Rise of American Protectionism.” March 14;

Evers, Williamson M. 1977. "Social contract: a critique," The Journal of Libertarian Studies, Vol. 1, No. 3, Summer, pp. 185-194;

Fleming, Mega. 2016. “Graduate School Revokes Doctorate For Plagiarism.” March 2;

Folsum, Jr., Burton W. 1996. The Industrial Revolution and Free Trade

Frey, Bruno S., Werner W. Pommerehne, Friedrich Schneider and Guy Gilbert. 1984. "Consensus and Dissension Among Economists: An Empirical Inquiry, American Economic Review, December, 74:5:986-94.

Friedman, Milton and George Stigler. 1946. “Roofs or Ceilings?,” September, Irvington-on-Hudson: Foundation for Economic Education,; reprinted as Friedman, Milton, and George Stigler. 1981. "Roofs or Ceilings?" in Rent Control: Myths and Realities, Walter E. Block and Edgar Olsen, eds., Vancouver: The Fraser Institute.

Friedman, Milton and Rose Friedman. 1997. “The Case for Free Trade.” Hoover Digest No. 4.

Friedman, Milton. Undated. “A minimum-wage law is, in reality, a law that makes it illegal for an employer to hire a person with limited skills.”;,+in+reality,+a+law+that+makes+it+illegal+for+an+employer+to+hire+a+person+with+limited+skills.%E2%80%9D&source=bl&ots=oBhaVzo4_o&sig=tPYbXajMPWQADdFdRvvbUvPXsbs&hl=en&sa=X&ei=QoU4U-fSIKeisQTIyoGQBQ&ved=0CDwQ6AEwAw#v=onepage&q=Playboy%20Milton%20Friedman%3A%20%E2%80%9CA%20minimum-wage%20law%20is%2C%20in%20reality%2C%20a%20law%20that%20makes%20it%20illegal%20for%20an%20employer%20to%20hire%20a%20person%20with%20limited%20skills.%E2%80%9D&f=false

Fuller, Dan and Doris Geide-Stevenson. 2003. “Consensus amongst economists revisited.” Journal of Economic Education. Vol. 34, No. 4, Fall; pp. 369-378;

Gallaway, Lowell and Douglas Adie. 1995. Review of Card and Krueger's Myth and

Measurement: The New Economics of the Minimum Wage, Cato Journal, Volume 15, no.1

Galles, Gary. 2014. “Cognitive Dissonance on Minimum Wages and Maximum Rents.” April 15;

Garrison, Roger W. 2001. Time and Money: The Macroeconomics of Capital Structure. London: Routledge; an important contribution to Austrian business cycle theory

Gitis, Ben. 2014. “How Minimum Wage Increased Unemployment and Reduced Job Creation in 2013” March 30;

Goodman, John C. 2011. “How Many Melanoma Patients Did the FDA Kill?” March 30;

Gordon, Roger and Gordon B. Dahl. 2013. “What Do Economists Think about Major Public Policy Issues? Views among Economists: Professional Consensus or Point-Counterpoint? American Economic Review: Papers & Proceedings 103(3): 629–635;

Gottlieb, Scott. 2010. “The FDA Is Evading the Law.” The Wall Street Journal. December 23;

Grampp, W.S. 1950. “Some Effects of Rent Control,” Southern Economic Journal, April, pp. 425-426

Grant, R.W. 1989. “Rent Control and the War Against the Poor,” Manhattan Beach, CA: Quandary House

Gwartney, James, Robert Lawson and Walter E. Block. 1996. Economic Freedom of the World, 1975-1995, Vancouver, B.C.: The Fraser Institute

Hanke, Steve H. 2014A. “Minimum Wage Laws Kill Jobs.” January 29;

Hanke, Steve H. 2014B. “Let the Data Speak: The Truth Behind Minimum Wage Laws.” Globe Asia, April;

Hayek, Friedrich A. 1931. Prices and Production, London: Routledge.

Hayek, Friedrich A. 1981. "The Repercussions of Rent Restrictions," Rent Control: Myths and Realities, Walter E. Block , ed., Vancouver: The Fraser Institute

Hazlitt, Henry. 2008 [1946]. Economics in One Lesson. Auburn, AL: Mises Institute;

Henninger, Daniel. 1990. "Will the FDA Revert to Type?" The Wall Street Journal, December 12, A16.

Higgs, Robert. 1994. “Banning a Risky Product Cannot Improve Any Consumer's Welfare (Properly Understood), with Applications to FDA Testing Requirements ” The Review of Austrian Economics, Vo1.7, No. 2, pp. 3-20;

Hoppe, Hans-Hermann. 1993. “A Four-Step Health-Care Solution,” The Mises Institute Monthly, vol. 11, no. 4 (April),

Horowitz, David. 2000. “The latest civil rights disaster: Ten reasons why reparations for slavery are a bad idea for black people -- and racist too.”

Horowitz, David. 2002. Uncivil Wars: The Controversy over Reparations for Slavery. San Francisco, CA: Encounter Books

Howland, David. 2013. “Increased Minimum Wage, Decreased Economic Prosperity.” November 16;

Hunter, Brittany. 2017. “What Puerto Rico Can Teach Us About the Minimum Wage.” January 5;

Johnson, M. Bruce, ed. 1982. ”Resolving the Housing Crisis: Government Policy, Decontrol, and the Public Interest, San Francisco: The Pacific Institute

Johnsson, Richard C.B. 2004. “On Ricardo and Free Trade.” January 12;

Kaitin, K. I., B. W. Richard, and Louis Lasagna. 1987. "Trends in Drug Development: The 1985-86 New Drug Approvals." Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 27, August, 542-48.

Kazman, Sam. 1990. "Deadly Overcaution: FDA's Drug Approval Process." Journal of Regulation and Social Costs 1, no. 1, September: 35-54.

Klein, Daniel B. and Stewart Dompe. 2007. “Reasons for Supporting the Minimum Wage: Asking Signatories of the ‘Raise the Minimum Wage’ Statement,” Econ Journal Watch. Vol. 4, No. 1, January, pp. 125-167

Klein, Daniel B. and Alexander Tabarrok. Undated. “Is the FDA Safe and Effective?

Krasnozhon, Leo, David Simpson and Walter E. Block. 2015. “Fair trade: Its Real Impact on the Working Poor.” The Review of Social and Economic Issues (RSEI). Vol. 1, No. 2, Spring, pp- 5-28

Landsburg, Steven E. 2004. “The sin of wages; the real reason to oppose the minimum wage. Slate. July 9.

Landsburg, Steven E. 2008. “What to Expect When You’re Free Trading.” The NY Times. January 16;

Lewenstein, Bruce. 2017. “Has any university ever revoked a PhD for any reason?” January 18;

Lindbeck, Assar. 1972. The Political Economy of the New Left, New York: Harper and Row; cited in Rydenfelt, Sven, "The Rise, Fall and Revival of Swedish Rent Control," in Rent Control: Myths and Realities, Walter E. Block and Edgar Olsen, eds., 1981. Vancouver: The Fraser Institute, 1981, pp. 213, 230.

Lingenfelter, Jonathan, Jose Dominguez, Leandra Garcia, Bryce Mayon and Walter E. Block. 2017. “Closing the Gap: Why Minimum Wage Laws Disproportionately Harm African-Americans.” Economics, Management, and Financial Markets; 12(1): 11–24

Loeber, Thomas S. 1961. Foreign aid: our tragic experiment, New York: Norton

Lowe, Derek. 2016. “Retracting a PhD Degree, and Heading to Court.” February 9;

Machan, Tibor R., 1983, "Social Contract as a Basis of Norms: A Critique," The Journal of Libertarian Studies, Vol. 7, No. 1, Spring, pp. 141-145;

McCaffrey, Matt. 2014. “IKEA’s ‘Minimum Wage.’” July 4;

McCloskey, Deirdre Nansen. 2016. “The Secret History of the Minimum Wage; The eugenicists' favorite economic regulation.” June 12;

McCormick, Paul and Walter E. Block. 2000. "The Minimum Wage: Does it Really Help Workers," Southern Connecticut State University Business Journal, Vol. 15, No. 2, Fall-Spring, pp. 77-80.

McGee, Robert W., 1994A. A Trade Policy for Free Societies: The Case Against Protectionism, Quorum Books.

McGee, Robert W. 1994B. "The Fatal Flaw in NAFTA, GATT and All Other Trade Agreements," Northwestern Journal of International Law & Business, Vol. 14, No. 3, 549-565.

McMaken, Ryan. 2016A. “Four States Vote to Punish Low-Skilled Workers With Minimum Wage Hikes.” November 19;

McMaken, Ryan. 2016B. “To Oppose Free Trade Is To Embrace Violence.”

McNeill, Desmond. 1981. The contradictions of foreign aid, London : Croom Helm.

Mercer, Ilana. 2015. “Minimum Wage, Maximum Folly’ In The Ivy League.” May 10;

Mises, Ludwig von. [1912] 1953. The Theory of Money and Credit [originally published in German in 1912]. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.

Mises, Ludwig von. [1949] 1998. Human Action, Scholars’ Edition. Auburn: Mises Institute.

Moyo, Dambisa. 2009. Dead Aid: Why Aid is Not Working and How there is a Better Way for Africa, New York, N.Y.: Farrar, Straus and Giroux

Mullen, Tom. 2015. “Trump's Protectionist Fallacies Have Been Refuted By Free Market Economists for Hundreds of Years.” August 31;

Murphy, Robert P. 2004. “Can Trade Bring Poverty?” December 24;

Murphy, Robert P. 2014. “Economists debate the minimum wage.” February 3;

Murphy, Robert P. 2015A. “The Minimum Wage ‘Experiments.’” June 16;

Murphy, Robert P. 2015A. “Robert Reich Shills for $15 Minimum Wage.” June 22;

Myrdal, Gunnar. 1965. "Opening Address to the Council of International Building Research in Copenhagen"; cited in ”Dagens Nyheter (Swedish Newspaper), 25 August 1965, p. 12; cited in Rydenfelt, Sven, "The Rise, Fall and Revival of Swedish Rent Control," in Rent Control: Myths and Realities, Walter E. Block and Edgar Olsen, eds., 1981. Vancouver: The Fraser Institute, p. 224; cited in Block, Walter. 1981. “Preface.” Rent Control: Myths and Realities, Walter E. Block and Edgar Olsen, eds., 1981. Vancouver: The Fraser Institute, p. xiv.

Neumark, David and Wascher, William. 1992. "Employment Effects of Minimum and Subminimum Wages: Panel Data on State Minimum Wage Laws." Industrial and Labor Relations Review 46 (October), pp. 55-81.

Neumark, David and William Wascher. 1995. "Minimum wage effects on employment and school enrollment." Journal of Business Economics and Statistics. Vol. 13, No. 2, pp. 199-207.

Newman, Jonathan. 2016. California Weighs a $15 Per Hour Minimum Wage.” March 28;

Newman, Jonathan. 2016. “The Lack of EpiPen Competitors is the FDA's Fault.” August 24;

North, Gary. 2014. “How Minimum Wage Laws Promote Racial Discrimination.” July 19;

North, Gary. 2016. “Labor Unions and the Minimum Wage: ‘We Got Ours -- Screw You.’" May 2;

Osterfeld, David. 1992. Prosperity versus planning: how government stifles economic growth, New York : Oxford University Press.

Outlaw, Irish. 2008. “Social contract my ass.” March 15;

Peltzman, Sam. 1974. Regulation of Pharmaceutical Innovation: The 1962 Amendments. Washington, D.C.: American Enterprise Institute for Public Policy Research.

Peltzman, Sam. 1987a. Regulation and Health: The Case of Mandatory Prescriptions and an Extension. Managerial and Decision Economics 8(1): 41–6.

Peltzman, Sam. 1987b. The Health Effects of Mandatory Prescriptions. Journal of Law and Economics 30(2): 207–38.

Peltzman, Sam. 2005. Regulation and the Natural Progress of Opulence. Washington: AEI-Brookings Joint Center on Regulatory Studies, pp. 15–6.

Perry, Mark. 2016A. “What a $15 an Hour Minimum Wage Law Can and Cannot Do.” May 22;

Perry, Mark. 2016B. “Black Unemployment Matters.” July 14;

Powell, Benjamin. 2013. “Krugman Contra Krugman on the Minimum Wage?” December 12;

Peltzman, Sam. 1973. “An Evaluation of Consumer Protection Legislation: The 1962 Drug Amendments.” The Journal of Political Economy. Vol. 81, No. 5, Sept-Oct, pp. 1049-1091

Reisman, George. 2014. “How Minimum Wage Laws Increase Poverty.” April 4;

Reisman, George. 2016. “The State Against Economic Law: the Case of Minimum Wage Legislation.” January 4;

Ricardo, David. 1821 [1912]. The Principles of Political Economy and Taxation, 3rd ed., London: J. M. Dent

Riddell, Roger. 1987. Foreign aid reconsidered, Baltimore : Johns Hopkins University Press.

Roberts, Russ. 2016. “The Human Side of Trade.” December 11;

Robinson, Randall. 1998. Defending the Spirit: A Black Life in America. Middlesex, England: Penguin

Robinson, Randall. 2000. The Debt: What America Owes to Blacks. New York, N.Y.: Dutton;

Robinson, Randall. 2002. The Reckoning. Middlesex, England: Penguin

Rothbard, Murray N. 1958. “A Hard Look At Foreign Aid.” Review of Foreign Aid Reexamined, by H. Schoeck and J. Wiggins (eds.). National Review, November 8, pp. 313 314.

Rothbard, Murray N. [1963] 1975. America's Great Depression. Kansas City: Sheed and Ward,

Rothbard, Murray N. 1988. “Outlawing Jobs: The Minimum Wage, Once More.” The Free Market. Auburn, AL: The Ludwig von Mises Institute, December, 1, 7-8;;

Rothbard, Murray N. 1993. Man, Economy, and State, 2 vols., Auburn, AL: Ludwig von Mises Institute

Rothbard, Murray N. 2005. Protectionism and the Destruction of Prosperity. Auburn, AL: The Mises Institute;

Rothbard, Murray N. 2015A. “On the minimum wage.”July 29;

Rothbard, Murray N. 2015B. “The Crippling Nature of Minimum-Wage Laws.” November 6;

Rouanet, Louis. 2016. “The Case for Unilateral Free Trade.” October 13;

Rustici, Thomas. 1985. “A public choice view of the minimum wage.” Cato Journal. Vol. 5, No. 1, pp. 103-131;

Salerno, Joseph T. 2006. “The Indirect Effects of Raising the Minimum Wage.” November 10;

Salihu, Bardhyl N. 2013. “Bending the Laws of Economics.” February 19;

Salins, Peter D. 1980. The Ecology of Housing Destruction: Economic Effects of Public Intervention in the Housing Market, New York: New York University Press.

Saltsman, Michael. 2015. “Minimum Wage Hike Forces a Nonprofit Restaurant to Close.” January 5;

Sardi, Bill. 2007. “The FDA has blood on its hands.” May 16;

Schiff, Peter. Undated.

Smith, Adam. [1776] 1979. An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations, Indianapolis, IN: Liberty Fund

Sohr, Kevin and Walter E. Block. 1997. “The Minimum Wage,” The Freeman Ideas on Liberty, November, pp. 681-682.

Sowell, Thomas. 1995. "Repealing the Law of Gravity," Forbes, May 22; p. 82.

Sowell, Thomas. 2000. Basic Economics: A Citizen's Guide to the Economy. New York, N.Y.: Basic Books; (

Sowell, Thomas. 2013. “Why racists love the minimum wage laws.” September 17;

Spiro, Andreas. 2012. “What Do Ron Paul, Northwest Biotherapeutics, And Novartis Have In Common?” September 12;

Spooner, Lysander. 1966[1870]. No Treason: The Constitution of No Authority and A Letter to Thomas F. Bayard, Larkspur, Colorado: Rampart College;

Steinreich, Dale. 2005. “Playing God at the FDA.” May 2;

Thornton, Mark. 2002. “Corruption and Foreign Aid.” November 19.

Thornton, Mark. 2016. “Mandating Higher Wages Won't Fix Japan's Economy.” November 17;

Tucker, Jeffrey. 1997. “The Marshall Plan Myth.” The Free Market. September, Vol. 15, No. 9;

Tucker, Jeffrey. 2015. “The Eugenics Plot Behind the Minimum Wage: There really was a white male scheme to exterminate African Americans.” February 10;

Tucker, William. 1990. The Excluded Americans: Homelessness and Housing Policies, Washington D.C.: Regnery Gateway

Vance, Laurence M. 2000. “The Foreign Aid Debacle.” The Free Market. December, Vol. 18, No. 12;

Vance, Laurence. 2016. “Free trade is fair trade.” June 1;

Vedder, Richard K., and Lowell Gallaway. 2001. “Does the Minimum Wage Reduce Poverty?” Employment Policies Institute, June.

Vuk, Vedran. 2006. Professor Stiglitz and the Minimum Wage.” September 4;


Ward, Victor J. 2014. “The Curious Case Of Reparations.” September 15;

Wanniski, Jude. 1998. The Way the World Works.

Wecker, Menachim. 2012. “10 High-Profile People Whose Degrees Were Revoked.” May 2;

Wenzel, Robert. 2013. “The Wrong Way to Argue Against Minimum Wage Laws.” February 17;

Wenzel, Robert. 2015. “How Minimum Wage Increases Went Bad in San Francisco, Oakland, Seattle and Beyond.” June 10;

Wenzel, Robert. 2016. “Tyler Cowen on the Two Economists That Lefties Use to Prop Up Their Minimum Wage Hike Advocacy.” January 5;

Westley, Robert. 1998. “Many billions gone: is it time to reconsider the case for black reparations?,” 40 Boston College Law Review 429-476

Wiegold, Benjamin M. 2014. “The High Cost of Minimum Wages” May 30;

Williams, Walter, E. 1982. The State Against Blacks, New York, McGraw-Hill.

Williams, Walter, E. 2013. “Higher Minimum Wages.” February 27;

Williams, Walter, E. 2014A. “Politics and Minimum Wage.” January 8;

Williams, Walter, E. 2014B. “The State Against Blacks and the Minimum Wage.”

Williams, Walter, E. 2014C. “Embarrassing Economists.” October 21;

Williams, Walter, E. 2015A. “Self-Enforcing Discrimination.” March 31;

Williams, Walter, E. 2015B. “Embarrassing Economists.” May 10;

Williams, Walter, E. 2016. “The Arrogant Elite,” June 8;

Williams, Walter. 2017. “International Trade Thuggery.” January 18;

Williams, Walter, E. Undated.

Wolfers, Justin. 2012. “The Secret Consensus Among Economists.” June 25;

Woods, Thomas E. Jr. 2009. Meltdown: A Free-Market Look at Why the Stock Market Collapsed, the Economy Tanked, and Government Bailouts Will Make Things Worse. Washington D.C.: Regnery Publishing


REDIB; Sumários.Org; DOAJ; Ulrich’s International Periodicals Directory; Latindex; RVBI

Revista Jurídica Cesumar - Mestrado
Unicesumar, Maringá (PR), Brasil
ISSN 1677-6402 Impressa
ISSN 2176-9184 On-line

Licença Creative Commons
Este obra está licenciado com uma Licença Creative Commons Atribuição-NãoComercial 4.0 Internacional.